Women have a lower single procedure success of catheter ablation for both paroxysmal and persistent AF.
Prior studies have suggested a higher prevalence of non pulmonary vein (PV) AF triggers and more advanced substrate in women. Whether repeat ablation procedures improve arrhythmia outcomes in the female population compared to men is not well understood. there is lack of data regarding the impact of repeat ablation procedures in women with persistent atrial fibrillation. This is relevant when counselling patients regarding the efficacy of repeat procedures. In this study we aim to evaluate the ablation outcomes of females compared to males with persistent AF who require more than one procedure.